Branch Chain Amino Acids
Leucine is typically referred to as the main branch chain amino acid or the "anabolic trigger". It has been shown to activate a protein called mTOR, which induces skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Supplementing with leucine promotes increased lean muscle mass and suggests reduced muscle damage after intense training. Isoleucine and valine are the other two branch chain amino acids. They are able to activate mTOR, but not to the extent that leucine can. Supplementing with all three BCAA's induces skeletal muscle protein synthesis.
Taurine is the second most abundant amino acid in the body. It is mostly present in striated type 2 muscle fibers. Taurine supplementation aids in controlled movement of water in and out of the muscle which promotes proper hydration and fluid levels. During training, taurine levels drop and force output decreases, specifically in fast twitch muscle fibers. Supplementing with taurine allows for the muscle to maintain proper taurine levels, which increases muscular endurance.
Citrulline Malate has been shown to enhance ammonia clearance during exercise which may have a positive impact on muscular endurance. It has also been shown to increase bicarbonates in the blood which play an important role in blood lactate levels by buffering lactic acid. It supports oxygen delivery to the muscles, which improves endurance and recovery through oxidative burst without oxidative damage.
LCLT has been shown to reduce muscle damage produced by high intensity resistance training. LCLT supplementation may increase androgen receptor. The androgen receptor signaling pathway is essential for appropriate development of skeletal muscle. Androgen receptors regulate increases in lean muscle mass, strength and protein synthesis.